Building Materials

A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. There are two main forms of cement: Geopolymer cement and Portland Cement. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel together.

Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined …. Sand from rivers are collected either from the river itself or its flood plain and accounts for the majority of the sand used in the construction industry.


Granite is a light-colored igneous rock with grains large enough to be visible with the unaided eye. It forms from the slow crystallization of magma below Earth’s surface. Granite is composed mainly of quartz and feldspar with minor amounts of mica, amphiboles, and other minerals.

Bitumen, also known as asphalt in the United States, is a substance that forms through the distillation of crude oil. It has waterproofing and adhesive properties. Bitumen production through distillation removes lighter crude oil components, such as gasoline and diesel, leaving the “heavier” bitumen behind.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was also used.